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Tips on how to Deal with Sleep apnea

Sleep apnea is when a person’s breathing continuously stops and resumes while sleeping. Daytime tiredness, loud snoring, and restless sleep are all symptoms.

Usually, people with sleep apnea also have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Sleep Apnea(SA) occurs due to a physical blockage in the upper airway. Another kind, central sleep apnea (CSA), is caused by a neural system signaling issue.

One will stop breathing if the airway closes and the signal is not received. This will occasionally happen during sleep, but it will recur repeatedly if not use sleep apnea pillow. They may snore, take a big breath, or awaken with a sense of gasping, smothering, or choking when they breathe again.

Sleep apnea, if left uncared for, can lead to depression and heart disease. It can also cause drowsiness, increasing the risk of driving or working accidents.

This article will learn more about the symptoms, treatment, and other factors when dealing with sleep apnea.

Tips on how to Deal with Sleep apnea

Symptoms of sleep apnea

Someone with sleep apnea is not usually aware of this condition until another person observes while they are asleep.

The General symptom includes:

The significantly visible symptoms of the individual include:

  • decreased libido and erectile dysfunction
  • difficulty concentrating
  • fatigue
  • headaches
  • heartburn
  • insomnia
  • irritability
  • sore throat

Causes of sleep apnea

Various factors can contribute to the blocking or collapse of the airway. They include the following:

  • thickened tissues and additional fat stores around the airway
  • nasal congestion
  • lax muscles and other tissues in the mouth and throat
  • an underlying neurological problem

These can result from:

  • thyroid problems
  • obesity
  • swollen tonsils
  • kidney or heart failure
  • genetic factors
  • colds and allergies
Tips on how to Deal with Sleep apnea

Treatment of sleep apnea

Sleep apnea treatment aims to normalize breathing during sleep and address any underlying health problems. The options will depend on the cause and severity of the symptoms.

  1. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy

Surgery is the most common treatment for sleep apnea. It keeps the airway open by gently delivering a constant stream of positive pressure air through a mask.

Some patients find CPAP challenging to tolerate and stop using it before noticing any long-term benefits. However, several things can be done to make the equipment more comfortable, and the adjusting process goes more smoothly.

The mask’s settings and appearance can be altered. Nasal issues can be alleviated by moistening the air passing through the mask.

  1. Lifestyle therapy

Normalizing breathing requires lifestyle changes, which are critical first stages in treating sleep apnea. Self-care may be the best method for you to deal with obstructive sleep apnea in many circumstances. 

They include:

  • developing healthy sleeping habits
  • following a heart-healthy diet
  • quitting smoking
  • managing weight
  • limiting alcohol consumption
  • Lose weight if you’re overweight: If you’re overweight or obese, even a tiny amount of weight loss can assist reduce airway tightness. Losing weight can enhance your health and quality of life and help you sleep better throughout the day.
  • Exercise regularly: Exercising, such as aerobic and weight training, can help you get in better shape. Aim for 200 minutes of activity every week, and aim to exercise on most days of the week.
  • Use an allergy medication or nasal decongestant.
  • Don’t sleep on your back: Instead of sleeping on your back, try sleeping on your side or stomach. When you sleep on your back, your tongue and soft palate might lay against the back of your throat, obstructing your airway.
  • Avoid taking sedative medications such as sleeping pills and anti-anxiety drugs.
  • Avoid alcohol and medications such as anti-anxiety drugs and sleeping pills. Alcohol, anti-anxiety medications, and some sleeping pills can worsen obstructive sleep apnea and sleepiness.
  • To prevent sleeping on your back, try sewing a tennis ball in the back of your pajama top or place pillows behind you while you sleep on your side.
Tips on how to Deal with Sleep apnea

While sleeping, keep your nasal passages open. Use a saline nasal spray to keep your nasal passages open if you have congestion. Consult your doctor before using nasal decongestants or antihistamines, as some treatments may only be prescribed for a short period.

  1. Surgery

People with OSA might have their airways widened through various surgical treatments. Excess or larger tonsils can be removed, or obstructive tissue can be stiffened or shrunk.

MRD (mandibular repositioning device) is a custom-made oral appliance for those who have mild to moderate OSA.

During sleep, the mouthpiece holds the jaw forward to widen the space below the tongue. This keeps the upper airway open and prevents snoring and apnea.

An MRD’s side effects could include worsening temporomandibular joint dysfunction and jaw pain.

  1. Medication

Some medications may be helpful, but only after consulting a sleep specialist. Here are some examples:

  • zolpidem
  • triazolam
  • acetazolamide

These, however, may have serious side effects and are not fit for everyone.

When to see a doctor

Sleep apnea has been linked to various health problems, including the inability to concentrate, depression, heart attack, and stroke. It may also increase the risk of hypertension.

Although the link between the two disorders isn’t always evident, anyone with sleep apnea should get medical help because it could suggest an underlying issue.

Although the person may be unaware of their sleep apnea, a sleeping partner or another household member may notice it and alert them.

If these steps don’t help you sleep better or your apnea is moderate to severe, your doctor may suggest alternative therapies. A clogged airway can be supported with the use of specific devices. In some circumstances, surgery is required.

Caution

Because of the high occurrence of sleep apnea in heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias, doctors advise that you seek medical treatment as soon as possible.

If you think you could have obstructive sleep apnea, you’ll probably start by seeing your primary care physician. Your doctor may recommend a sleep specialist.

Avoid driving if you’re drowsy. Daytime tiredness might increase your risk of a car accident if you have obstructive sleep apnea. Schedule rest breaks to stay safe. Avoid driving if a close friend or family member tells you you appear sleepier than you feel.

MOre to read: Answers to questions on sleep apnea

Answers to questions on sleep apnea

Have you heard about sleep apnea? What exactly can you say about sleep apnea (SA)? We know it’s normal for several questions about SA to cross your mind. We are here to provide adequate answers to some questions about SA. Therefore, you need to stay focused and shun all distractions right now. For clarity, we would start by giving a brief explanation about SA. 

What is sleep apnea?

Sleep apnea is a life-threatening sleep disorder that can affect one’s breathing. SA happens when breathing stops and starts repeatedly. Have you ever experienced that? Of course, you might not know. One of the common symptoms of SA is loud snoring during sleep. However, some schools of thought came out to defend the assertion that people who snore loudly are battling sleep apnea. They said other things might cause one to snore loudly while sleeping. It could be a wrong sleeping position.   

What are the types of SA?

There are two major types of SA which are; OSA and CSA. The OSA means obstructive sleep apnea, which occurs when the throat muscles relax. It occurs when the muscles in the back of one’s throat relax disproportionately to allow normal breathing. Also, central sleep apnea occurs when one’s brain doesn’t send the appropriate signal to the muscles that control breathing. And once the powers holding breathing fail to receive the proper signal from the brain, central sleep apnea will occur.

Also read: Fears you might experience with LASIK laser eye surgery sydney

What are the symptoms of SA? 

One of the most common symptoms of SA is snoring loudly at night. However, there are other symptoms of this sleep disorder. It could be morning headache, irritability, insomnia, hypersomnia, and difficulty staying asleep. You might be wondering if loud snoring is among the symptoms of sleep apnea. Some people assume that snoring is a natural case that cannot be controlled. That’s not true. When one snores loudly, something is wrong. Of course, such a person might be suffering or battling sleep apnea. Other symptoms are; awakening with a dry mouth, difficulty paying attention while awake, and occurrences in which one stops breathing during sleep.

How do I know if I’m battling with SA?

The best way to know if one is battling with SA is by doing a polysomnogram. Polysomnogram is a sleep study that can be used to detect sleep apnea. During the study, a sleep specialist will monitor you while you’re asleep. The sleep specialist will hook you up with some equipment. The equipment will monitor your brain activity and blood oxygen. Also, your heart rate and breathing pattern will be observed while sleeping. Of course, the study’s outcome will help your doctor make a perfect diagnosis.

Answers to questions on sleep apnea

What do I do after it is crystal clear that I have SA?

The first and the best thing to do is to consult your doctor. You need to explain how you’re feeling to your doctor. Please don’t engage in self-medication. Let every step you take to control your sleep come from your doctor. There’s nothing much to say here. It is the duty of your doctor or your sleep specialist to tell you what to do. 

How long does a study take?

Although no one can be precise about this question because it varies, the sleep study typically takes nine to ten hours. It depends on how the sleep specialists handle it. Once you enter the sleep center, you’ll need to spend some time talking to the sleep specialist, and he’ll explain the process to you. Attaching monitors and other study equipment for the study should take less than forty-five minutes. After the equipment has been fixed on you, the actual sleeping study will require six hours to take proper records. 

Does SA have any adverse effects? 

SA reduces one’s quality of sleep. And this can have a cumulative effect. So, several consequences might occur if one is deprived of sleep. Do you know that if SA is left untreated, one can lose memory? Of course, it’s possible. Irritability can also set in. One can have an accident while driving. 

Are there complications? 

Of course, SA can cause many health complications. When one breathing stops, the oxygen level in one’s blood can drop. This drop can strain one’s cardiovascular system. And this can make one’s heart works harder. People with sleep apnea are prone to have high blood pressure, abnormal heartbeats, and diabetes. If sleep apnea is left untreated, one can have a heart attack and stroke. There are countless people with heart disease resulting from untreated sleep apnea. 

Answers to questions on sleep apnea

How can SA be treated?

The perfect treatment for SA is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). CPAP is a machine commonly prescribed for treating SA. This device is specifically designed to treat and regulate airflow in the airways. Remember, we mentioned obstructive sleep apnea as the most common type/cause of sleep apnea. So, OSA causes interruptions in one’s breathing because one’s throat is temporarily blocked. Hence, a CPAP machine helps to send a steady flow of air into one’s nose and mouth while asleep. This incredible machine is a medical tool that normalizes the flow of pressurized air into one’s nose and mouth. It helps to keep one’s airways open; then, one can breathe normally. 

Is CPAP hard to sleep with? 

Continuous positive airway pressure machines for home use are usually small. These machines are small. One needs to put on a mask over one’s nose. The mask is connected to the tubing and the CPAP machine itself. People are already used to CPAP machines, so they don’t see it as something they can’t sleep with. However, those that are just using a continuous positive airway pressure machine should keep the benefit of this machine in mind. So, after using this machine for weeks and you’re not comfortable sleeping with it, you can consult your sleep specialist to help you out. Perhaps your sleep doctor only needs to adjust the pressure on the machine or suggest another continuous positive airway pressure mask that’ll make you look more comfortable. There’s always a way out if you have an uncomfortable mask.  

On a final note

Dear reader, we hope some crucial questions about SA have been answered. Finally, if you have any questions regarding this topic, don’t hesitate to drop them in the comment box.  

More to read:
Tips on how to Deal with Sleep apnea
Why Lasik eye surgery is expensive
Fears you might experience with LASIK laser eye surgery sydney

Fears you might experience with LASIK laser eye surgery sydney

Many individuals who are contemplating LASIK eye surgery have voiced a number of reservations. One of the most common questions we get is, “What if I blink during my procedure?” One of the most common concerns among prospective applicants is the likelihood of blinking or moving their eyes during LASIK laser eye surgery or other laser vision correction procedures. However, the use of modern technology and other protections taken during treatment should ease these concerns.

A patient has little control over whether or not their laser eye surgery sydney will go awry. We use advanced tracking technology to monitor your eye location, which measures your eye position a thousand times every second. It constantly travels at the same speed as your eye, ensuring that it is perfectly centered. It’s conceivable that the eye may move quickly, in which case the laser will shut off and resume after the eye has stopped moving. If required, we may even turn off the laser manually.

Fears you might experience with LASIK

Throughout the operation, numbing drops will be administered to increase your comfort and reduce the probability of you moving your eyes. During the procedure, a small medical device is used to keep the eyelids open in order to prevent blinking. As a result, you won’t be able to shut your eyes or blink throughout the procedure to prevent pain. Your eye will not grow dry and you will not feel the need to blink because we utilize eye drops to maintain the surface of your eye moist. Furthermore, our staff takes many steps to guarantee that you are in the most comfortable position possible throughout your treatment. Keep in mind that LASIK eye surgery is a short process that takes just a few minutes to complete, and there are various safeguards in place to reduce the risk of complications.

It’s no surprise that laser surgery is today’s most popular laser vision correction procedure, and for good reason. Continuous advancements in laser technology and ophthalmology have opened the way for surgeries that are both safer and more successful, resulting in better visual outcomes for patients.

Many individuals have phobias, some of which are reasonable and others which are not. Irrational fears, sometimes known as “phobias,” are common throughout medical and surgical procedures. This is mostly owing to the fact that many patients are unfamiliar with either the procedure or the end result.

Fears you might experience with LASIK

The scenario is the same as previously when it comes to LASIK surgery. Most people who are considering it are unaware of what to anticipate, which only adds to their worry. Some individuals are so afraid of the surgery that they refuse to have it done on them. Nonetheless, LASIK has become a very common and safe procedure in recent years when performed by educated and experienced physicians. To assuage the majority of LASIK fears, all that is necessary is a basic understanding of how the surgery works, what to anticipate throughout the simple procedure, and the method’s current high success rate.

The most common LASIK fears, and why you shouldn’t be worried about them.

1. The dread of permanently losing one’s eyesight.

Patients who are contemplating LASIK surgery have expressed anxiety that the operation may result in them losing their eyesight permanently. According to the Food and Drug Administration, no cases of blindness have been documented as a consequence of a LASIK procedure. In actuality, the chance of serious complications after LASIK surgery is less than one percent. This 1% will be non-existent due to the scarcity of qualified and experienced surgeons. Furthermore, it is uncommon for your vision to decline after the procedure, and any slight visual anomalies may be quickly corrected with post-operative retreatment.

2. Concerns about the laser colliding with the eye

Who, after all, wouldn’t be scared of being hit by a laser beam? One of the most prevalent concerns among patients is that they will be exposing a very sensitive bodily component, the eye, to a laser. You shouldn’t be afraid, however, since the laser only makes short contact with your eye. There’s no need to worry about things going wrong if you move your head or blink your eye since the treatment is done using cutting-edge technology. Patients who are worried about blinking should rest assured that this will not happen since a special eye retainer is used to keep the eye open during the therapy.

Fears you might experience with LASIK

3. The fear of feeling pain throughout the LASIK treatment.

Remove this feeling of fear as quickly as feasible. You will feel very little pain throughout the LASIK procedure. The treatment is carried out while you are awake and takes no more than 5 minutes. Only mild anaesthetic will be needed and numbing drops will be administered to make your eyes comfortable throughout the process. Some folks have reported feeling a little pressure but not being bothered in the least.

Gather all pertinent medical information for your eye surgery LASIK appointment. It’s critical that your doctor has all of the details. Any ocular or medical issues, medications, or allergies should be disclosed. Only the information you willingly submit to your doctor will be used, so be thorough. Don’t attempt to predict what your doctor thinks is important. Let them make their own decisions.

Hydration Prior to Surgery

Water makes about 60% of your body. Water is required for the proper functioning of every cell, tissue, and organ. Water hydrates the body, washes out waste, and aids in the healing process. Because laser eye surgery may cause your eyes to become momentarily dry, hydrate from the inside out. Using over-the-counter artificial tears to deal with post-treatment dryness is also a good idea.

There are no disadvantages to being hydrated! At least eight 8-ounce glasses of water should be consumed each day. Avoid alcohol the day after LASIK surgery since it might dehydrate you and interfere with your LASIK medications.

Can I drink coffee before LASIK eye surgery?

You should remain calm and relaxed during the procedure. Caffeine dehydrates you and reduces your ability to relax, concentrate, and remain still while operating.

Is it OK to drink alcohol before LASIK?

Before your laser eye surgery, there are no restrictions on what you may drink. However, we strongly advise you to abstain from drinking alcohol on the day of your treatment. Caffeine and alcohol both dehydrate the body. We want to avoid anything that can aggravate your dry eyes, especially if you have them before LASIK. You will also be given an oral sedative to help you relax before surgery, but it should not be used with alcohol. During the procedure, you must remain alert, and drinking may affect concentration. You’ll take an oral pain reliever right after LASIK eye surgery that, like the preoperative sedative, should not be used with alcohol.

Eat these foods to recover from LASIK

While it’s common knowledge that a well-balanced, nutritious diet is good for the whole body, did you know that the opposite — a bad diet — might harm your eyesight, particularly if you’re recuperating from LASIK eye surgery? The quality of the food, how it is prepared, and the amount ingested may all have a role in the development of eye diseases. As a result, we’ve developed a list of things to stay away from.

Meats that are very fatty

Rich cholesterol is typically caused by a diet high in processed meats high in saturated fat, such as red meat and sausage. Plaque builds up on the macular veins of the eyes as a consequence, restricting blood flow to the eyes. As a consequence, eating a lot of fatty meats may increase your risk of developing macular degeneration, a retinal illness that causes vision loss. This may also halt the progression of laser eye surgery.

Foods for Snacks Snack foods like chips, cookies, and sweets may have a negative impact on your eyesight if ingested in large or even moderate quantities. According to a recent research, the vegetable, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats included in these meals enhance the risk of eye diseases in persons who eat them in large amounts. The excessive salt and sugar content of these meals, in addition to the unhealthy fats, has a negative impact on the health of the body’s organs and circulatory system, hindering blood and oxygen flow to the eyes.

Sugar A high-sugar diet is one of the most harmful to the eyes, particularly when it comes to laser eye surgery. Consuming large quantities of sugar on a regular basis raises your blood sugar, causing the lens of your eye to expand and distort your vision. Excess sugar consumption may lead to diabetes, which can lead to leaky blood vessels in the eyes, ocular hemorrhages, and potentially permanent vision loss.

Fried foods are foods that have been fried.

The heating and re-heating of frying oils changes their molecular structure, which is harmful to the whole body, including the eyes. Fried foods deplete the body of nutrients and release free radicals, which hurt eye cells and slow the healing process after LASIK surgery. Furthermore, eating fried foods weakens the heart and reduces blood circulation, both of which affect blood flow to the eyes and may lead to eyesight loss.

Eat these foods to recover from LASIK

Foods that are good for your eyes

Following your education on which foods to avoid in large amounts, here is a list of foods that may aid in the prevention of eye diseases:

  • Eggs
  • Citrus fruits and berries • Green, leafy veggies
  • DHA-rich salmon and other seafood (omega-3 fatty acid)

The following are some of the laser surgery risks:

• Eyes that are dry.

The LASIK eye surgery lowers tear production temporarily. As your eyes heal, they may seem particularly dry for the first six months or so after surgery. Your eyesight may be harmed by dry eyes.

To treat dry eyes, your eye doctor may prescribe eyedrops. If you have severe dry eyes, special plugs may be inserted in your tear ducts to prevent tears from draining away from the surface of your eyes.

• Halos, glare, and double vision are all common symptoms.

You may have problems seeing at night after LASIK eye surgery, which usually lasts a few days to a few weeks. Symptoms include increased sensitivity to light, glare, halos around bright lights, and double vision.

Even if you get a good visual result under standard testing conditions, your vision in dim light (such as at twilight or in fog) may be impaired to a greater degree than before surgery.

Undercorrections.

You will not attain the increased eyesight you seek if the laser damages inadequate tissue in your eye. Individuals who are nearsighted are more prone to need undercorrections. You may need another LASIK eye surgery within a year to remove additional tissue.

Overcorrections.

Furthermore, the laser may remove an excessive amount of tissue from your eye. It’s possible that fixing overcorrections is more difficult than correcting undercorrections.

Astigmatism.

The loss of tissue in an uneven manner may cause astigmatism. It’s possible that you’ll need further surgery, glasses, or contact lenses.

Problems with the flap.

Folding back or removing the flap from the front of your eye during surgery might cause problems including infection and excessive tears.

Regression.

The outermost corneal tissue layer underneath the flap may form improperly throughout the healing process. When your eyesight progressively returns to your previous prescription, this is known as regression. This is an issue that occurs seldom.

Eat these foods to recover from LASIK

Visual impairment or loss.

Surgical complications may also result in vision loss. Furthermore, some people may lose their ability to see as sharply or clearly as they did before.

Hazards are exacerbated by certain circumstances.

Certain medical conditions might increase the risks of LASIK surgery or make the result less predictable.

Your doctor may not recommend laser refractive surgery if you have certain conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or a weakened immune system caused by immunosuppressive medications or HIV.

  • Drugs, hormonal changes, pregnancy, nursing, or old age have all caused recent alterations in eyesight.
  • Corneal inflammation, lid irregularities, eye injuries, or eye diseases such uveitis, herpes simplex in the eye, glaucoma, or cataracts.

If you have an eye illness that causes the cornea to thin and bulge, or if you: 

  • Have a family history of it 
  • Have pretty decent overall vision 
  • Have severe nearsightedness, LASIK surgery is typically not indicated.
  • Participate in contact sports that may include blows to the face 
  • Have excessively big pupils or thin corneas 
  • Have age-related eye changes that cause vision to become less clear

If you’re thinking about LASIK eye surgery, talk to your doctor about your worries and questions. Your doctor will evaluate whether you are a good candidate for this or similar procedures.

Methods of preparation

There are many things you may do to be ready for surgery, including the following:

Estimate how much surgery will cost.

Most insurance companies will not cover the cost of LASIK eye surgery since it is deemed elective. Prepare to pay for your expenses with your own money.

Arrange for return transportation.

You’ll need transportation to and from the surgery center. You may have lingering symptoms from the medicine you were given before to surgery, and your vision may be blurry.

Leave your eyeshadow at home.

Avoid applying eye makeup, creams, scents, or lotions the day before and the day of your surgery. In the days leading up to surgery, your doctor may encourage you to brush your eyelashes daily or more often to remove debris and lower your risk of infection.

Why Lasik eye surgery is expensive

Recently, people have been saying Lasik eye surgery is expensive. In some parts of the world, if you’re not sound financial, you can’t undergo this process to treat your eye problems. I can boldly tell you that the least price or cost of Lasik in Australia is $2000. In fact, these days, ophthalmologists in Australia are looking for a way to add more money to what they charge. Of course, there are several reasons behind the increase in the cost of Lasik in Australia

man using calculator

Generally, the cost of Lasik is also increasing almost in every country. In the US, you cannot enter a clinic for Lasik without holding $2500. And I don’t think it was like that a few years back. I would say Lasik eye surgery is not expensive if you consider other things attached to it. What do I mean? Other factors contribute to the increase in the price of this surgery. Ant, that is what I want to talk about here. But before I proceed, it is expedient to talk about Lasik surgery. Click here to read about The Full Guide on Differences Between LASIK and SMILE.

What is Lasik surgery?

When a laser is used to reshape, resolve and correct the eye’s cornea whenever the eye is complex, then Lasik surgery has taken place. It is a process of using a Laser to correct any vision problem. Lasik eye surgery is a perfect procedure to fight myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. I have seen people saying something good about how this surgery transforms their vision on several occasions. At first, one might be scared of this surgery. One might even think about the possibility of regaining one’s sight permanently.

Sincerely, you are safe if you undergo this surgery. 

So, what happens during this surgery? During Lasik, the thin cornea flap in the upper layer of the cornea is lifted. The Laser will reshape the cornea tissue that is underneath. The reason behind this procedure is to ensure that light focuses better on the retina. So, if the surgery is carried out correctly, the cornea flap will be restored. Today, Lasik surgery is one of the safest and most reliable ways of solving visual problems. Let me chip in that a competent eye surgeon must carry out this surgery. Visit https://www.seslhd.health.nsw.gov.au/sydney-eye-hospital/services-clinics/directory/ophthalmology to read about Sydney and Sydney Eye Hospital is a Centre of Excellence.

Why Lasik eye surgery is expensive

The cost of this treatment goes beyond the activities in the theatre room. You need to know that the money you’re paying for this surgery covers many things. Oh! That makes it expensive for you, though! However, what are the things added to the cost of Lasik eye surgery to make it expensive?

  1. Consultation fee: If you’ve been instructed to undergo this surgery, you’ll need to see your eye doctor severally, even before the day of the surgery. Of course, it doesn’t end there. Do you know that you’ll also need to see your eye surgeon even after the surgery? And you don’t need to pay any money again. So, the consultation fee is added to the total cost of Lasik eye surgery. Therefore, if you don’t know this before, please note it now. Initially, you can’t visit a doctor without paying a consultation fee. It’s impossible. So, the consultation fee is always added to the total cost of Lasik. Now, you see that you’re not only paying for the service in the theatre room alone. 
  2. Medications: After the surgery, some medications will be given to you. In most cases, you don’t need to pay for those medications. The cost of those medications has been added to the total cost of the surgery. I have seen people given eye drops to use after the surgery, and they didn’t pay a dime for those eye drops during the surgery. So, if they ask you to pay $2500 for Lasik surgery, you should know that the consultation and medication fees are included. Of course, you can ask before you register. 
  3. Potential enhancement treatment: If any issue arises after or during the procedure, you don’t need to pay extra money. The money you’ve paid will cover everything that has to do with your eyes at that moment. For instance, if a severe complication arises two weeks after the surgery, you need to go back to the eye clinic and lodge complaints. Then, you don’t need to pay any extra money before they attend to you. This has been what is going on that people did not know. So, please remember that you’re not only paying for the activities in the theatre room. You also paid for potential enhancement treatment.
  4. Follow-up services: It is expedient for you to know that no one will request a separate fee for follow-up services. You might be wondering if you need to pay for follow-up services. Of course, you need to pay for it. The doctor cannot just assume that all is well with you after the surgery without follow-up. It is their duty as a professional to ensure you’re fully recovered. So, the cost of follow-up services is added to the total cost of Lasik eye surgery. This vital information is hidden from people. That is why they assume and conclude that Lasik eye surgery is expensive. If you see it from this angle that your doctor needs to be compensated for follow-up, you’ll join the league of those saying, “Lasik is cheap.”

Other things that contributed to the increase in the cost of Lasik

If there’s an increase in other things that will enhance effective surgery, there will be an increase in Lasik’s cost. If there’s an increase in medication cost, Lasik’s price will also increase. Other materials that can affect the cost include the eye surgeon’s price and an increase in the price of tools and equipment.    

Closing thought

Dear reader, hopefully, I have done justice to why people think Lasik eye surgery is expensive. If you find this write-up intriguing, please share the link to this page with family and friends. Finally, a question regarding this topic might cross your mind while reading this article. Please drop your question in the comment box if you have any.

Why you need to undergo Lasik eye surgery

Indeed, Lasik is not the only means of solving your eye problems. We have heard about people who regained their sight without undergoing any surgery. Also, some people are battling myopia, and they did not undergo Lasik to solve their eye problems. However, it is good to hit the nail on the head. I can boldly tell you that of all the means of solving eye problems, Lasik is the perfect one. 

If you’ve been diagnosed with myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism, this procedure is the perfect way of restoring your vision. Research shows that 90% of people that has undergone this surgery in the US are now living fine. No one should motivate you on how to live a balanced life. The eye is the light of the body. So, with that said, every individual must rise to do the needful whenever they feel some strange things in their eyes. You can get more information about lasik surgery in Australia by visiting https://www.personaleyes.com.au/lasik.

Although, the first step you need to take is not to visit the clinic and tell them you want to do surgery. Please don’t misquote me. If you’re seeing some symptoms like myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism, the first step you need to take is to visit your eye doctor. Your eye doctor will examine you. He (the eye doctor) will be the one to tell you what to do. 

Therefore, please permit me to say that this article is for those instructed by their eye doctor to undergo Lasik. You might be wondering why you need to undergo this surgery. In fact, for someone that already knew that Lasik is not the only way to solve their eye problems, they might start questioning themselves why do I need Lasik eye surgery? This article aims at helping people to know why they need to undergo the procedure. But before I move further, let me briefly explain what this surgery entails. You can read about

Recently, people have been saying Lasik eye surgery is expensive. In some parts of the world, if you’re not sound financial, you can’t undergo this process to treat your eye problems. I can boldly tell you that the least price or cost of Lasik in Australia is $2000. In fact, these days, ophthalmologists in Australia are looking for a way to add more money to what they charge. Of course, there are several reasons behind the increase in the cost of Lasik in Australia. 

Generally, the cost of Lasik is also increasing almost in every country. In the US, you cannot enter a clinic for Lasik without holding $2500. And I don’t think it was like that a few years back. I would say Lasik eye surgery is not expensive if you consider other things attached to it. What do I mean? Other factors contribute to the increase in the price of this surgery. Ant, that is what I want to talk about here. But before I proceed, it is expedient to talk about Lasik surgery. Click here to read about Why Lasik eye surgery is expensive.

What is Lasik surgery?

When a laser is used to reshape, resolve and correct the eye’s cornea whenever the eye is facing a challenge, then Lasik surgery has taken place. It is a process of using a Laser to correct any vision problem. Lasik eye surgery is a perfect procedure to fight myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. I have seen people saying something good about how this surgery transforms their vision on several occasions. At first, one might be scared of this surgery. One might even think about the possibility of regaining one’s sight permanently. Sincerely, you are safe if you undergo this surgery. 

So, what happens during this surgery? During Lasik, the thin cornea flap in the upper layer of the cornea is lifted. The Laser will reshape the cornea tissue that is underneath. The reason behind this procedure is to ensure that light focuses better on the retina. So, if the surgery is carried out correctly, the cornea flap will be restored. Today, Lasik surgery is one of the safest and most reliable ways of solving visual problems. Let me chip in that a competent eye surgeon must carry out this surgery.

undergo Lasik surgery

Why do you need to undergo Lasik surgery?

  1. Lasik surgery is safe: If you’re looking forward to solving your eye problems, following the instruction from your eye doctor to do Lasik surgery would be a great choice. I have seen countless people talking about how safe Lasik is. The process is safe and straightforward. If Lasik surgery is done by an expert ophthalmologist, a competent one, the tendency to spend more money on any eye problem is low. Therefore, if you want to stay safe or protect your eyes from complications, please follow your doctor’s instructions to undergo this procedure. 
  2. Lasik surgery is not expensive: The cost of Lasik cannot be compared to other eye surgery. I have heard about people that lost their eyesight because the surgery prescribed to them was expensive. With Lasik surgery, the case is different. Over the years, it has been said that Lasik is the only surgery that benefits both the wealthy and middle-class people. You don’t need to be a rich man before you can undergo this process. People at the middle-class level can also benefit from Lasik. I have written something about the cost of Lasik eye surgery in Sydney. 
  3. Lasik surgery has a fast reaction: This surgery is not what one will do, and one needs to stay indoors for months. There are eye surgeries that one has to be admitted to the clinic for several months. Lasik surgery is different. If it is done appropriately, one can leave the clinic on the day of the surgery. After this procedure, it does not take much time for someone to start seeing positive results. If you are suffering from hyperopia and your eye doctor had instructed you to undergo this surgery, you’ll start seeing the result or the outcome of this surgery two hours after the surgery. In fact, do you know you can go back to your daily activities 48hours after this surgery? Of course, yes, you can. That is why you need to do this surgery. 
  4. There’s no need to use glasses after the surgery: If you’ve been using glasses or contact before undergoing this surgery, there’s a high tendency that you won’t need glasses anymore. I am not flattering you. I am telling you what I’ve seen. Sincerely, I have seen people using glasses before Lasik, and they stop using them a few days after the surgery. Is that not amazing? Of course, it is. Do you know there are other eye surgeries that you dare not expose your eyes to natural air even after undergoing them? Honestly, Lasik is the perfect means of solving hyperopia, myopia, and astigmatism. 
  5. Lasik takes less time: You don’t need to stay days in the clinic if you want to undergo this process. Ideally, the procedure only lasts for twenty to twenty-five minutes. And you can get back to your house that same day. 

On a final note

This write-up is to build people’s confidence. There’s no cause for alarm. Hopefully, I have done justice to why you need to undergo this procedure. Therefore, it is normal to have a question regarding this topic. Please feel free to share your question or contribution in the comment box.  

The Full Guide on Differences Between LASIK and SMILE

Laser surgeries used to correct refractive eye errors are relatively new. Since LASIK was officially approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), operations have become more popular to improve people’s visual clarity for myopia, hyperopia, or astigmatism.

 SMILE and LASIK

LASIK is one of the laser-guided operations performed to reshape corneas. This procedure works for all levels of refractive errors. Also, SMILE is a newer refractive procedure with fewer side effects. Though SMILE is less invasive than lasik surgery Sydney, it works for people with nearsightedness and associated astigmatism.

 differences between SMILE and LASIK

While there are some essential differences between SMILE and LASIK, the pros and cons of both overlap a lot. They are roughly the exact cost, have a similar healing period, side effects, and correct refractive errors within the same range, usually 20/40 or better.

However, you may be a perfect candidate for the SMILE procedure than LASIK. It is best to work with your doctor to determine which procedure would suit your eyes. Click here to read about Eyes – laser eye surgery.

SMILE Eye Surgery vs. LASIK

Refractive errors are the most popular forms of vision problems. They involve issues with the cornea shape, which makes it more challenging to see clearly at distances. Nearsightedness is the most common refractive error. Astigmatism, presbyopia, and farsightedness are also common.

For centuries, eyeglasses have been the best way to correct double or blurry vision. Then, contact lenses became the most common way to see clearly, without people sporting your refractive error. Despite the benefits, contacts can be uncomfortable. It also requires maintenance and does not correct vision for a long time.

Thanks to advancements in laser surgeries, starting with LASIK, many people worldwide have clear vision without eyeglasses or contacts. The LASIK procedure is the most famous of these surgeries, improving refractive errors to 20/40 clarity.

While LASIK surgery works for many people, it’s not a perfect solution for all. As a result, more f laser vision correction has been developed over time, like the SMILE procedure. Suppose you are looking for laser eye surgery to correct your refractive error. In that case, it is essential to know the differences between the laser surgery options. Visit https://scalingimpact.net/why-you-need-to-undergo-lasik-eye-surgery/ to read about Why you need to undergo Lasik eye surgery.

SMILE vs. LASIK: Are there Similarities & Differences?

Laser-guided surgeries to improve refractive eye errors have evolved since the 80s. Initially, these procedures involved tiny scalpels making incisions and reshaping the cornea or lens. However, modern versions involve programmed lasers for much of the procedure. That reduces the time in the operating room, reduces invasiveness, and helps to improve surgical accuracy and recovery period. It is also more affordable.

  • LASIK basics: LASIK stands for laser-assisted in situ keratomileuses. During the procedure, the surgeon uses a laser to remove tissue from the cornea to reshape and refract light to your retina, which stands at the back of your eye.
LASIK basics

LASIK procedure takes up to 15 minutes per eye. The surgeon uses local anesthesia for flawless operation. Sedative medications will keep you awake during the procedure for your eyes to be responsive. Healing takes about a day or two. As a matter of fact, most people resume working the next day. Although it is good to avoid activities such as intense exercise, especially swimming, for some weeks.

During the LASIK surgery, your eye doctor will use a device to create a tiny flap in your cornea. They will either use a microkeratome (a little, machine-guided scalpel) or a specialized femtosecond laser. Then, they will remove corneal tissue to reshape your cornea with an excimer laser.

  • SMILE: SMILE means small incision lenticule extraction. It is a newer laser refractive surgery based on LASIK. Though this procedure has been used worldwide for more than ten years, the FDA approved the procedure and associated devices in 2016. SMILE treats nearsightedness. 

The setup for the SMILE procedure is like LASIK in a few ways. You get numbing eye drops to say awake during the procedure, the laser is preprogrammed with a plot of your cornea, and you sit down for up to 15 minutes per eye while your surgeon uses the laser to reshape your cornea. The healing period is almost the same, but there’s less risk of scarring on the corneal flap detaching from the eye. You won’t be moved from one device to another because only one laser is involved, reducing your risk of developing dry eye as a side-effect. SMILE procedure is a good option for you if you are struggling with myopia because you can’t have LASIK surgery.

Similarities Between LASIK & SMILE procedure

Similarities Between LASIK & SMILE procedure

There are several similarities between SMILE and LASIK procedures. The SMILE was developed from LASIK since it was so popular. In addition, they both take up to 10 to 15 minutes. They both require a day of rest and almost the same healing period. They both cost around $2,000 to $3,000 on average. The procedures and steps are similar.

Differences Between LASIK & SMILE procedure

While both LASIK and SMILE are procedures that use a laser to reshape a patient’s cornea and improve visual acuity, several differences can help determine if one might work better for your eyes.

Here are some of the significant differences in SMILE vs. LASIK procedure:

  • LASIK treats every refractive error. SMILE procedure treats nearsightedness with or without astigmatism; however, not farsightedness or astigmatism.
  • LASIK procedure requires the surgeon to cut a flap in the cornea for the excimer laser to reach the inner part of your eye. SMILE procedure reshapes the top of your cornea to flatten it.
  • The LASIK procedure is not a good choice for people with thin corneas. SMILE procedure can benefit nearsighted people with thin corneas.
  • The LASIK procedure has better recovery potency from side effects at a seven-day aftercare point than the SMILE procedure. However, there’s no difference in recovery period and rates.
  • The LASIK procedure has been around for over 20 years, and there are some new developments with the surgery. According to surgeons, SMILE surgery is recent to the U.S. and improving every day.

Conclusion

Both LASIK and SMILE procedures are good vision correction options with enduring results. They are similar in preparation, methods, and results. However, you might be more qualified for SMILE and not LASIK. This guide has given you an objective report about how the two options works. You can choose whichever procedure you prefer based on the prescription of your surgeon. 

What are refractive vision problems and why do they occur?

They say to keep your eye on the ball. But can you see it? Clear eyesight is one of the most fundamental and important prerequisites for sports success. Athletes must be able to see what they are doing, regardless of sport. Of course, some individuals are born with exceptional eyesight. Even if that’s not you, there are lots of ways to improve your eyesight and level the playing field. One of these options is laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis, or LASIK. There are various advantages of lasik for sportsmen.

When we gaze at anything, light enters our eye and travels through a structure called the cornea. The cornea houses the natural lens of the eye, which is in charge of refracting light so that it reaches the retina in the rear of the eye appropriately. The retina is in charge of focusing light and transmitting instructions to the brain to assist us in interpreting what we see. However, when light is refracted wrongly, it does not properly concentrate on the retina, resulting in impaired vision.

Myopia, or near-sightedness produced by a steeper cornea, is one kind of refractive issue.

  • Hyperopia, or farsightedness, produced by an overly flat cornea.
  • Astigmatism occurs when the cornea is shaped more like a football rather than a soccer ball, causing light to refract improperly.
  • Presbyopia, age-related changes in the composition of the natural lens that result in refractive defects.

It is all too easy to take our vision for granted. After all, many of us don’t know how much we depend on good eyesight until we’re unable to see well. If an eye test finds that you need corrective therapy to restore the clarity of your vision at all distances, you must choose which choice is best for you. Unfortunately, both eyeglasses and contact lenses aren’t for everyone, and many patients will have to make concessions and alterations to their everyday lives if they use either.

LASIK laser eye surgery, on the other hand, is an option. LASIK is the most common elective surgery in the United States, with over a million people having undergone the operation before. In 2020, many more people are projected to get LASIK laser vision repair to recover their eyesight. Why are so many individuals opting for LASIK? Why? Because of the many benefits it provides. Here’s all you need to know about the main advantages of LASIK eye surgery. Although there are some problems with lasik and you can read them at https://scalingimpact.net/some-problems-associated-with-lasik/

The biggest benefit of having LASIK is, unsurprisingly, that it will provide you with dramatically improved eyesight. According to the most recent studies, 99 percent of patients get 20/40 vision or better, and more than 90 percent attain 20/20 vision or better. Although there is no promise that you will not need corrective lenses after LASIK, most patients find that they have little or no need for them.

At times, both spectacles and contact lenses may be troublesome

Certain sports, such as swimming, skiing, and surfing, make it hard to use glasses. Or maybe you’re tired of carrying your glasses with you everywhere you go in case you need to read anything. Meanwhile, allergies and issues with contact lenses may make them difficult to use, and they are often more costly than glasses. Many of the disadvantages that individuals who use glasses or contact lenses have are eliminated through LASIK.

Glasses are quite delicate, which means they may be quickly destroyed, whether by dropping them, sitting on them, or even through natural wear and tear. It is also possible to leave them somewhere by mistake. Contact lenses are also difficult to use, and prolonged wear kinds need the usage of cleaning solutions. Each of these methods may incur recurring fees to keep your idea alive. However, with LASIK, you merely pay for your procedure, and since you will need little or no eyewear thereafter, LASIK is a highly cost-effective solution to your vision difficulties.

Many individuals experience anxiety while contemplating eye surgery. Despite this, cutting-edge laser technology assures that LASIK is exceedingly accurate and precise, as well as extremely safe. The complete procedure takes just a few minutes for each eye, and the rest of your time in the surgery suite is spent on preparation and recuperation.

In addition, LASIK is absolutely painless. This is because, before to your LASIK procedure, you will be given anesthetic eye drops that will fully numb your eyes, eliminating any pain. If required, some patients may be given a light sedative to help them relax.

One of the most common advantages of LASIK is how quickly you may return to normalcy after your operation. You’ll be relieved to hear that you may go home the same day as your LASIK eye surgery, whether you have job or care responsibilities. You will, however, need the assistance of another driver since you are not permitted to drive until you have gotten the all-clear from your surgeon.

You may notice an improvement in your vision within a few hours, and it will continue to improve in the days and weeks after your surgery.

What precisely is laser vision correction?

Laser vision correction

As the name implies, is a way of treating refractive vision disorders utilizing cutting-edge laser technology. Laser technology has advanced tremendously over the previous several decades, making it safer and more precise than ever before. Using this ground-breaking procedure, it is able to map the patient’s cornea with unrivaled accuracy and utilize this information to design and carry out corneal reshaping.

Laser vision correction has a very high success rate, and many patients discover that their dependency on eyeglasses or contact lenses is minimized, if not eliminated altogether.

LASIK, or Laser-Assisted Stromal In-Situ Keratomileusis, is a well-known kind of laser vision correction.

Consider the Following Before LASIK

After deciding for LASIK, there are some critical items to consider before starting.

Expectations That Are Realistic

Inquire with your doctor about the outcomes of LASIK. If you’ve had prior surgery or your glasses prescription is really high, laser vision correction may be limited in its effectiveness. It’s preferable to be aware of all of this up front in order to manage expectations appropriately. As with any operation, dangers such as infection always exist.

Recovery Time Is Variable

Although the majority of individuals recover relatively rapidly after LASIK, each person is unique. Allow for some more rest after surgery in case your recuperation takes longer than anticipated. If you’re up to it, you can always return to your game sooner. Recovery time is somewhat longer with PRK compared with LASIK. As a result, one eye is completed first and then allowed to recover before the second eye is completed. This spacing between the procedures on each eye enables the best possible recuperation.

Consequences

Some patients feel dryness, pain, and redness of the eyes after LASIK. If your eyes are already dry, pre-treatment may be beneficial prior to surgery. Additionally, some individuals need corrective surgery to enhance their eyesight. Others report seeing halos, starbursts, or glare. Consult your doctor to determine the likelihood of these adverse effects occurring in your instance.

Before a LASIK procedure

Prior to performing LASIK, your eye surgeon will take comprehensive measurements of your eye and evaluate your eye’s general health. Prior to the surgery, you may be recommended to take a little sedative. Eye-numbing drops will be delivered after you are lying comfortably on a surgical table. Then, he or she will precisely modify the curvature of your cornea using a specialized sort of cutting laser. Each laser pulse removes a little piece of corneal tissue, enabling your eye surgeon to either flatten or steepen the curvature of your cornea.

Typically, the surgeon will form a flap in the cornea and then elevate it up to reshape it. Additionally, there are variants in which a very thin flap is raised or in which no flap is formed at all. Each strategy has its own set of benefits and drawbacks.

Individual eye surgeons may be experts in a particular form of laser eye surgery. The distinctions between them are often slight, and none is unquestionably superior than the others. You may want to investigate the following options, depending on your unique circumstances and preferences:

  • In situ keratomileusis facilitated by laser (LASIK). LASIK, which is now the most frequently done laser eye surgery, involves producing a partial-thickness corneal flap and ablation of the corneal bed using an excimer laser. After that, the flap is repositioned in its initial position. There is little discomfort after surgery, and eyesight recovery often occurs within one to two days.
  • Keratectomy photorefractive (PRK). Rather of creating a flap, PRK scrapes away the top layer of the skin (epithelium). This corneal abrasion takes three to four days to heal, and in the near term, causes mild discomfort and impaired vision.These disadvantages were believed to be balanced by the potential benefit of PRK being safer for those who are more likely to be hit in the eye, such as those active in contact sports, law enforcement, or the military. However, since the risk of eyeball rupture is so minimal even with normal LASIK, there is likely no meaningful benefit to PRK. Additionally, lasik is a more effective treatment option than PRK for extreme nearsightedness (myopia).
  • Subepithelial keratectomy performed with the aid of a laser (LASEK). LASEK procedure is comparable to LASIK, except the flap is formed using a specialized cutting equipment (microkeratome) and ethanol exposure of the cornea. Because the treatment enables the surgeon to remove less of the cornea, it is an excellent alternative for those with thin corneas. LASEK has no substantial benefits over LASIK in those who are more susceptible to eye damage. learn more the differences between lasek and lasik at https://www.carecredit.com/well-u/health-wellness/lasik-vs-lasek
  • In situ keratomileusis using an epithelial laser (epi-LASIK). During an epi-LASIK operation, your surgeon uses a mechanical blunt blade instrument (epikeratome) to separate the epithelium from the cornea’s middle layer (stroma) and then reshapes the cornea using a laser. Similar to LASEK, this technique is non-invasive. learn more about epi-lasik by clicking here
  • Lenticule extraction through micro-incision (SMILE). This more recent technique of refractive surgery reshapes the cornea by creating a lens-shaped pocket of tissue (lenticule) under the cornea’s surface using a laser. The lenticule is then removed via a very tiny incision after it has been utilized to reshape the cornea.
  • Lenses placed intraocularly. To enhance vision, corrective lenses (intraocular lenses) may be surgically implanted in the eye. This procedure is performed commonly after cataract surgery (in which the old, cloudy natural lens is removed). Additionally, it may be a viable option to LASIK for elderly persons who may eventually need cataract surgery.
  • Intraocular lenses may also be provided to younger patients with severe nearsightedness who are unable to be treated successfully with corrective lenses. However, for the majority of individuals, they are not a standard choice.
  • Bioptics is a term that refers to the treatment of nearsightedness or farsightedness using a combination of procedures such as intraocular lenses and LASIK.

Your eyesight is in good condition.

Laser eye surgery is often recommended for patients who have a modest degree of refractive error and no unique visual difficulties.

Your eye surgeon will ask extensive questions about your eye health and do an examination of your eyes to ensure that you do not have any problems that might result in surgery-related complications or poor results. Among them are: 

  • Keratoconus, an eye condition that causes progressive vision loss and corneal thinning. Indeed, if you have keratoconus in your family, even if you do not have it, use extreme caution when considering elective eye surgery.
  • Inflammation of the eye (such as keratitis or uveitis) or infection of the eye (such as herpes simplex).
  • Trauma to the eye or abnormalities of the eyelids.
  • Eyes that are dry It is important to understand that LASIK surgery may exacerbate dry eyes if you already have them.
  • Pupils that are large If your pupils are very big, particularly in low light, LASIK may not be an option. Glare, halos, starbursts, and ghost images may all be devastating side effects after surgery.
  • Glaucoma. The surgical operation may result in an increase in intraocular pressure, aggravating glaucoma.
  • Cataracts.

Additionally, you may choose to reconsider LASIK if you: 

  • Have severe nearsightedness or have been diagnosed with a high refractive error. The advantages of LASIK surgery may be insufficient to outweigh the dangers.
  • Your eyesight (on the whole) is quite good. If your vision is good enough that you only use contacts or glasses occasionally, the benefits of surgery may outweigh the risks.
  • You’ve developed age-related changes in your eyes, resulting in less-than-perfect vision (presbyopia).
  • You engage in physical contact sports on a regular basis. If you often sustain blows to the face and eyes, such as when participating in martial arts or boxing, LASIK surgery may not be an appropriate option for you.

How healthy are you?

Additionally, your eye surgeon will ask thorough health-related inquiries. Certain unrelated medical disorders might enhance the risks associated with LASIK surgery or make the result less predictable. 

  • Any illness or condition that compromises your immune system, inhibits your capacity to recover, or makes you more susceptible to infections, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, HIV, and other autoimmune diseases.
  • Any time you are on an immunosuppressive medicine.
  • Uncontrolled diabetes increases your chance of developing problems such as diabetic retinopathy.

Is the clarity of your vision unflinching?

If you have myopia, your vision may continue to deteriorate throughout your adolescent years, or even longer, necessitating frequent adjustments to your glasses or contact lenses prescription. Thus, anyone seeking LASIK eye surgery should be at least 18 years old, preferably older.

Certain medical conditions and medicines – pregnancy, nursing, and steroid medications — might cause temporary visual changes. Before pursuing LASIK eye surgery, wait until your eyesight has stabilized.

Is it financially feasible?

The majority of insurance companies consider laser eye surgery to be an elective operation and hence do not pay the cost. Be aware of the expense of the procedure.

Some problems associated with LASIK 

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